RPC I, 4094


Image of specimen #12


Coin type
Volume I
Number 4094
Province Syria
Region Syria
City Uncertain Syrian mint of Cleopatra and Antony
Reign Roman Republic
Person (obv.) Cleopatra VII (queen)
Person (rev.) Mark Antony (Imperator)
Issue Cleopatra and Antony
Dating c. 36 BC
Obverse design diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra, r.
Reverse design bare head of Antony, r.
Metal Debased silver
Average diameter 27 mm
Average weight 15.03 g
Axis 1, 11, 12
Reference BMC 53, Walker, Metrology I, 611–13
Specimens 15
Note 43 coins, 21 obv. dies. A full die study is under preparation. That Cleopatra is on the obv. is demonstrated by the fact that die links can be found between the Cleopatra side, but hardly ever for the Antony side as well: obv. die links are much more frequent in Syria. See M. and K. Prieur, The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and their Fractions (Lancaster PA and London, 2000), p. 6, where the coins are given to ‘Antioch’s secondary mint’ (but with no arguments for the attribution). Butcher, CRS, pp. 55-8, agrees with a date of 36BC, and is also uncertain about mint attribution. C. Howgego (JRS 1993, p. 203) queries the interpretation of ΘƐΑ ΝƐWΤƐΡΑ as meaning the younger queen Cleopatra Thea (of Syria), and suggests a return to the old interpretation as ‘the younger goddess’. J. Olivier and C. Parisot-Sillon, Les monnayages aux types de Cléopâtre et Antoine. Premiers résultats et perspectives, BSFN 68.9 (Nov. 2013), pp. 256-68. The mint attribution of the tetradrachms is discussed. Their low fineness (cu above 20%) differs from the purer silver at Laodicea and Aradus and compares well, as do the trace elements, with coins of Antioch (68%). A dating to 36 to 32/1 is considered likely. 41-48 obv. dies have been identified. The similar denarii (RRC 543), which are dated to 34/33 until no later than 32, have a different fineness and trace elements, and differ in other technical details; they were perhaps minted in northern Syria, with 63-80 obv. dies. The mixture of Greek and Roman elements in the inscriptions and designs is emphasised.

Specimens of this coin type

Number Museum Bibliography
1     L BMC 56
2     B: 18204040
3     B: 18216885
4     B: 18217567
5     B: 18217908
6     B: 18204041
7     Sarnakunk hoard = SNG Armenia I, 447
8     Sarnakunk hoard = SNG Armenia I, 448
9     Sarnakunk hoard = SNG Armenia I, 449
10     Sarnakunk hoard = SNG Armenia I, 450
11     Sarnakunk hoard = SNG Armenia I, 451
12     ✸ NAC 120, 6 Oct. 2020, lot 664 (ex Ira and Larry Goldberg 81, 2014, lot 1551)
13     CNG Triton XXIV, 19 Jan. 2021, lot 915
14     CNG Triton XXV, M. Prieur coll., 11 Jan. 2022, lot 659 (ex Triton XXII, 8 Jan. 2019, lot 552; Moreira Collection Part 2, Superior, 10 Dec. 1988, lot 2245; Hess-Leu [7], 16 April 1957, lot 336)
15     D. Kimel coll. (ex NAC 132, 30 May 2022, lot 485)