Countermarks: see introduction. 3852-67 For the coinage of Antiochus IV, see Butcher, CRS, pp. 455-9. 3852-65. R. Dillen, Kingdom of Commagene: Punches and Countermarks, in J.-M. Doyen et V. Geneviève (ed.), Hekátê triformis. Mélanges de numismatique et d’archéologie en mémoire de Marc Bar, Travaux du cercle d’Études Numismatiques 17, Bruxelles, 2017, pp. 103-18, lists 13 different countermarks which were applied on diassaria (?) of Antiochus IV and Iotape. Only one assarion (?) of Epiphanes and Callinicus is known with a countermark, whereas about 160 diassaria (?) known to the author were countermarked, a proportion of 30% of the total of known coins. Some of these countermarks are also found on the Antiochene coinage.